Yellow fever: despite availability of a vaccine it poses a constant threat to several countries

Yellow fever: despite availability of a vaccine it poses a constant threat to several countries

 

Yellow fever is a serious hemorrhagic (bleeding) disease that may kill 15%-50% of severely infected people. Artemis One Health is conducting studies to understand the factors that would facilitate emergence of urban (within cities) yellow fever and is developing vaccine candidates that can be used to supplement the current vaccine shortage. Together with other groups we will study which mosquito species other than Aedes aegypi can be infected with the yellow fever virus. Our vaccine candidates will be based on the recombinant protein and the MVA platform (See our Approach). These platforms are convenient as they allow production of affordable vaccines that can be used in resource-poor countries.

 

What is the context of this research?

Yellow fever virus has the potential to cause big (urban) epidemics as exemplified by the situation before the 1950s. However, the majority of the reported outbreaks to date are mainly seen in Africa and South America and have a forest (sylvatic) origin. Important questions within the Health Organizations, such as WHO and PAHO are: Could yellow fever virus return to cause big epidemics again and what would be the drivers for emergence of urban epidemics of yellow fever. By conducting vector competence studies, we can understand which mosquito species are susceptible to infection with yellow fever virus and elucidate the factors that affect this susceptibility. For instance, it is known that the mosquito microbiota may modulate susceptibility to infection (competence). Of particular interest is Wolbachia, an endoparasite that colonizes only insects and limits mosquito susceptibility to infection with for instance the dengue virus. Dengue virus replication is inhibited in Aedes aegypi  colonized mosquitoes. Another example is that Aedes aegypti mosquitoes harbouring Wolbachia become resistant to Plasmodium infections, the parasite that causes malaria. Understanding the factors that influence successful establishment of yellow fever in high-risk areas such as the Caribbean and therefore its return as an urban epidemic, require fundamental knowledge both on mosquito ecology, and on host population immunity

 

What is the significance of this charity project?

Epidemic yellow fever in the Americas was successfully controlled in the mid-20th century through mass vaccination and vector reduction programmes. There is an effective vaccine against yellow fever, but in cases of big epidemics there will not be enough vaccines. In addition, the health system in many regions where urban yellow fever could be (re)established is ill-equipped to control such a disease in an epidemic form and there is an urgent need for more vaccines as part of an effective preparedness plan. Mosquito-borne infectious diseases remain the leading cause of arthropod-borne morbidity and death worldwide. The emergence and re-emergence of new mosquito-borne infectious diseases are creating unprecedented public health challenges as exemplified by recent emergence of chikungunya virus and Zika virus in the Americas. The combination of sustained introduction of viremic yellow fever travellers, a conducive ecology for local transmission, and an unimmunised population raises the possibility of yellow fever emergence in the Americas. Given the closely shared disease ecology with dengue virus and the endemic nature of dengue in many countries, the emergence of urban yellow fever remains a threat in the Americas, Asia, and Africa. Predicting emergence, spread and impact of a new mosquito-borne infectious disease such as yellow fever requires in-depth knowledge on the virus life cycle, hosts and mosquitoes, and the interplay between them. The results of this project are crucial to help countries prepare for the threat of yellow fever outbreak.

 

What are the goals?

  • Determine if different mosquito species are susceptible to infection with yellow fever virus
  • Determine if infection of  Aedes mosquitoes with other viruses such as dengue and chikungunya affects their susceptibility to infection with yellow fever virus
  • Development of candidate vaccines using state-of-the art vaccine platforms

 

Overview investment of the money

Request: Artemis One Health Research Foundation is  seeking up as much as €60.000 in funding for this charity project

Laboratory consumables  €48,300
Meetings (2,5%)     €1500
Maintanance equipment necessary for the project (2%)     €1200
Overhead (15%)     €9000
Total  €60,000

 

Use of Budget

More of 80% of the budget will be used for the actual project, which is investigating the risk that different mosquitoes can be infected with yellow fever. This part of the work includes collection of mosquitoes in the field, establishing mosquito colonies in the lab, infection experiments of mosquitoes and analyzing results. Furthermore, the budget will be used to develop new vaccine candidates that can be used to control big epidemics of yellow fever. The budget will also cover indirect costs that are crucial to perform the proposed work, which include maintenance of equipment relevant to execute the project, overhead, and meetings that are necessary to manage the project and discuss results and further steps forward. The work will start as soon as 80% of the requested funding is achieved. The duration of the project is envisioned to be 4 years.

Our researchers will share the outcomes of the experiment directly with the backer who signed in for this particular newsletter. The outcomes of this project will be published in the form of peer-reviewed journal publication, open data sets, graduate theses, academic posters, and more.

budget

Artemis One Health Research Foundation depends to a great extent on the support and generosity of donors for the success of our research projects. To guarantee that more than 80% of the donations goes to research, we need another source of funding to cover the salary for a technician to do the work. For this specific project we are seeking support for one technician for the duration of 4 years. The costs for personnel are estimated at 43,940 euro per year. Note that such a technician can be used for max three of the project lines of Artemis. In the face of lack of support for personnel, we will cover the personnel costs from own investments. However as a foundation relying on donations for specific programs we will appreciate your generosity to help us cover the personnel cost of this project. Are you a strong believer in our mission and do you/your organization want to support us in this fight, please feel free to contact our head Research & Development, Dr. Byron Martina by email b.martina@artemisonehealth.com or office phone +31 (0)30 635 5444.

 

WE NEED YOUR HELP! DONATE & SHARE this charity project and make people aware

 

* Please read these Terms & Conditions carefully. By donating you are agreeing to these terms and conditions. If you have any queries regarding our Charity Donation Services, please contact our Fundraising Officer, by email e.martina@artemisonehealth.com or office phone +31 (0)30 635 5444.

 

 

Subscribe to our mailing list

* indicates required



Select Research projects


Chikungunya

Chikungunya

 Chikungunya is a disease characterized by incapacitating pain in the joints and muscles, and no treatment or vaccine is currently available. The only way to prevent chikungunya is to prevent mosquito bites, something that is impossible to achieve over a long period of time. Although 50% of infected patients recover completely with no complications, another 50% will develop chronic pain or inflammation in the joints and/or muscles, which may last for months to years, resulting in additional psychological problems. During an outbreak, the burden on health services and the impact of the debilitating symptoms on the economy is immense. Chronic symptoms disrupt daily lives, require multiple medical visits to the physician, and about 80% of patients take medications every day to manage their symptoms. Understanding the mechanism of chronic chikungunya will help with the development of drugs that target the immune response or the virus to treat this chronic, debilitating disease. Artemis has identified potential pathogenic pathways that pave the way to the development of effective therapies.

Chikungunya has emerged in the Americas in 2013. The virus was responsible for huge morbidity, manifested as acute, debilitating muscle and joint pain and up to 50% of patients remained with chronic pain for months to years after infection. Chikungunya resembles the autoimmune disease “rheumatoid arthritis” and it is not possible to predict who will develop chronic arthritis as the mechanism that leads to the chronic disease is not well-understood. In this project we will look into the role of macrophages in the development of chronic disease.

 

What is the context of this research?

It is believed that infection of macrophages results in low-grade persistent infection. The continuous production of virus or the reaction of the macrophages to the low-grade infection may be responsible for the chronic pain and inflammation seen in 30-50% of patients.

 

What is the significance of this charity project?

Understanding the mechanism of chronic disease has big advantages to the patient. First, it may allow identification of biomarkers for predicting who will develop chronic disease. In addition, understanding the process by which chronic disease develops may pave the way to the development of effective treatment. Chikungunya outbreaks and the development of chronic disease have a huge impact on the health care system and a negative impact on the economy. It is extremely important to invest in research focussing on understanding the mechanism of chronic disease, which may help us design ways to prevent or treat it.

 

What are the goals?

  • Identify biomarkers of chronic chikungunya in cohorts of patients from the Dutch Caribbean
  • Understanding the role of macrophages in development of chronic disease

 

Overview investment of the money

Request: Artemis One Health Research Foundation is  seeking up as much as €30.000 in funding for this charity project

Laboratory consumables   €24,150
Meetings (2,5%)        €750
Maintanance equipment necessary for the project (2%)        €600
Overhead (15%)      €4500
Total   €30,000

Use of Budget

More of 80% of the budget will be used for the actual project, which is investigating the role of the immune system in development of chronic joint inflammation and pain. This part of the work includes experiments in the lab using different cells form human origins. Budget will be used to purchase cell cultures consumables, medium, monoclonal antibodies, and biomarker assays. The budget will also cover indirect costs that are crucial to perform the proposed work, which include maintenance of equipment relevant to execute the project, overhead, and meetings that are necessary to manage the project and discuss results and further steps forward. The work will start as soon as 80% of the requested funding is achieved. The duration of the project is envisioned to be 4 years.

Our researchers will share the outcomes of the experiment directly with the backer who signed in for this particular newsletter. The outcomes of this project will be published in the form of peer-reviewed journal publication, open data sets, graduate theses, academic posters, and more.

budget

Artemis One Health Research Foundation depends to a great extent on the support and generosity of donors for the success of our research projects. To guarantee that more than 80% of the donations goes to research, we need another source of funding to cover the salary for a technician to do the work. For this specific project we are seeking support for one technician for the duration of 4 years. The costs for personnel are estimated at 43,940 euro per year. Note that such a technician can be used for max three of the project lines of Artemis. In the face of lack of support for personnel, we will cover the personnel costs from own investments. However as a foundation relying on donations for specific programs we will appreciate your generosity to help us cover the personnel cost of this project. Are you a strong believer in our mission and do you/your organization want to support us in this fight, please feel free to contact our head Research & Development, Dr. Byron Martina by email b.martina@artemisonehealth.com or office phone +31 (0)30 635 5444.

 

WE NEED YOUR HELP! DONATE & SHARE this charity project and make people aware

 

* Please read these Terms & Conditions carefully. By donating you are agreeing to these terms and conditions. If you have any queries regarding our Charity Donation Services, please contact our Fundraising Officer, by email e.martina@artemisonehealth.com or office phone +31 (0)30 635 5444.

 

 

 

Subscribe to our mailing list

* indicates required



Select Research projects


Zika threatens more than just the unborn developing baby

Zika threatens more than just the unborn developing baby

 Zika was long considered not relevant and not worth investigating. However, the emergence of the virus in the Americas made it painfully clear that the virus is more dangerous than scientists reckoned a short time ago. There is a risk of spread of Zika virus disease in the European Region but this risk varies from country to country. The virus is associated with birth defects and evidence is accumulating that the virus is indeed the cause of malformations in unborn babies. Several viruses may cause birth defects and the most dangerous time appears to be earlier in the pregnancy, when damage to just a few cells has large consequences. However, there is evidence that infection with Zika virus at any point during a pregnancy can endanger the baby. Even asymptomatic infections, which occur in up to 75% of cases, are still dangerous to the unborn child. Babies with severe birth defects have been born to women who experienced asymptomatic infections, and therefore, the fear of an invisible epidemic of birth defects is substantial. It is not clear why Zika spread so quickly throughout the Americas and whether some factors may have facilitated this process. Since other viruses similar to Zika circulate in the affected areas, it is likely that cross-reactivity between Zika and other similar viruses play an important role. If proven, this will have have a huge impact on the use of vaccines against dengue or Zika. 

In February 2016, the Zika virus outbreak has been declared a public health emergency of international concern (PHEIC) by the World Health Organization (WHO). The emergence of Zika in the Americas was associated with severe complications such as microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). Although several studies have confirmed the association of Zika virus infection with microcephaly, several things remain unknown. This project aims at understanding the long-term effects in children born from mothers that were infected during pregnancy, but have not developed microcephaly.

 

What is the context of this research?

The currently on-going Zika virus epidemic has rapidly spread throughout South and Central America. Infection with Zika virus has not only been associated with relatively mild clinical disease, but recently also appeared to be associated with neurological disease manifestations that had not been reported before: microcephaly in unborn babies, Guillain-Barré Syndrome, and encephalitis. There is also recent evidence that Zika virus may be associated with miscarriage as well. However, not all children born from mothers infected with Zika virus during pregnancy develop microcephaly and it is less clear what the long-term effects will be in these children. For example, development of other neurological problems, such as epilepsy has been associated with infection of children with neurotropic viruses, such as herpes simplex virus. Infection of mice with neurotropic viruses also provided evidence that brain infection is linked to development of epileptic seizures.

 

What is the significance of this charity project?

It is not known what the long-term consequences of the Zika epidemic in the Americas are. If pre-natal or neonatal infection with Zika increases the chance of developing neurological disorders such as epilepsy, it may have a huge economical impact and prevention of infection becomes crucial.

 

What are the goals?

  • Determine the long-term consequences of pre-natal and neonatal Zika virus infection in a prospective cohort in the Dutch Caribbean
  • Study the effect of brain infection on development of epilepsy in the mouse model

 

Overview investment of the money

Request: Artemis One Health Research Foundation is  seeking up as much as €60.000 in funding for this charity project

Laboratory consumables   €48,300
Meetings (2,5%)      €1500
Maintanance equipment necessary for the project (2%)      €1200
Overhead (15%)      €9000
Total   €60,000

 

Use of Budget

More of 80% of the budget will be used for the actual project, which is investigating the risk of neonatal Zika virus infection in development of epilepsy. The work includes experimental studies where animal models will be used to study the role of Zika virus infection in development of epilepsy. Money will be used to finance request for permits to perform infection experiments in animal models, purchase and housing of animals and analysis of results. In addition, children borne from mothers that were infected during pregnancy will be followed for four years to determine the association of Zika virus infection and development of epilepsy and other cognitive disorders. The budget will be used to perform enquiries, blood collection and its analysis and analyzing results. The budget will also cover indirect costs that are crucial to perform the proposed work, which include maintenance of equipment relevant to execute the project, overhead, and meetings that are necessary to manage the project and discuss results and further steps forward. The work will start as soon as 80% of the requested funding is achieved. The duration of the project is envisioned to be 5 years.

Our researchers will share the outcomes of the experiment directly with the backer who signed in for this particular newsletter. The outcomes of this project will be published in the form of peer-reviewed journal publication, open data sets, graduate theses, academic posters, and more.

budget

Artemis One Health Research Foundation depends to a great extent on the support and generosity of donors for the success of our research projects. To guarantee that more than 80% of the donations goes to research, we need another source of funding to cover the salary for a technician to do the work. For this specific project we are seeking support for one technician for the duration of 5 years. The costs for personnel are estimated at 43,940 euro per year. Note that such a technician can be used for max three of the project lines of Artemis. In the face of lack of support for personnel, we will cover the personnel costs from own investments. However as a foundation relying on donations for specific programs we will appreciate your generosity to help us cover the personnel cost of this project. Are you a strong believer in our mission and do you/your organization want to support us in this fight, please feel free to contact our head Research & Development, Dr. Byron Martina by email b.martina@artemisonehealth.com or office phone +31 (0)30 635 5444.

 

WE NEED YOUR HELP! DONATE & SHARE this charity project and make people aware

 

* Please read these Terms & Conditions carefully. By donating you are agreeing to these terms and conditions. If you have any queries regarding our Charity Donation Services, please contact our Fundraising Officer, by email e.martina@artemisonehealth.com or office phone +31 (0)30 635 5444.

 

 

 

Subscribe to our mailing list

* indicates required



Select Research projects


Font resize
Contrast
X